Trace elements and cell-mediated immunity in gestational and pre-gestational diabetes mellitus at third trimester of pregnancy

Fadia Mahmoud, Habib Abul, Ali Dashti, Waleed Al-Jassar, Alexander Omu

Abstract


Objective. The aim of the study: To evaluate the correlations betweenZn2+, Cu2+, Mg2+, Se2+ and Cr3+ and alteration in T cell subsetsduring diabetic and normal pregnancy. Methods. The study involved63 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GD) and 16 pregnantwomen with Type 2 diabetes and 48 healthy, non-pregnant womenwere included as controls. Ten ml of whole venous blood from eachparticipant was analyzed for electrolytes by atomic absorption; totalantioxidant activity, individual enzymatic antioxidants by spectrophotometry;and lymphocyte sub-populations by flow cytometry. Results.There were significant changes in lymphocyte sub-populations: NaïveT cells were decreased and memory T-cells and activated T cells(CD4+HLA-DR+, CD4+CD29+) were increased in diabetes in pregnancy.Zn2+ and Cr3+ deficiency were observed in Type 2 diabeticswith an increase in Cu2+ in all pregnant cohorts. In healthy pregnantsubjects, CD4+-HLA-DR+ was increased in direct proportion to serumMg2+ (p<0.05) and Se2+ (p<0.01). In insulin-treated GD patients,CD4+CD29+ cells were increased proportionally to serum Zn2+(p<0.05) while in diet controlled GD cohort CD45RO+/ CD45RA+ Tcells correlated directly with serum Mg (p<0.05) and Zn2+ (p<0.01)while it correlated inversely with serum Cu2+ (p<0.01). Conclusions.The results of the present study show a correlation between trace elementdeficiency and increased lipid peroxidation in diabetes in pregnancyand lymphocyte activation. Dietary manipulation may, therefore,point to improvement in existing approaches to management ofdiabetes mellitus in pregnancy.

Keywords


Gestational diabetes; Lymphocyte activation; Trace elements

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References


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