The Facial Artery as a Branch of the External Carotid Artery in Thomas Turner’s (1793-1873) Treatise on the Arterial System (1825) and a Comparison with Modern Anatomy

Amir Shihada, Maria Sioula, Panagiotis Georgakopoulos, Evaggelos Mavrommatis


The aim of the present paper is to contribute to the understanding of the history of the anatomical study of the facial artery. The facial artery plays a fundamental role in the study of the anatomy of the face, and in maxillofacial and vascular surgery. The debate on the understating of this vessel is essential in the educational process, with special focus on the historical development of topographical and descriptive ideas about it. The comparison between the study of facial artery in the work of Thomas Turner (1793-1873) and modern anatomical concepts serves as an excellent educational paradigm. The documentary research method was used this short historical survey.

Conclusion. Thomas Turner laid the scientific foundation for the accurate anatomical study of the facial artery.


Facial Artery Types; Education; History of Medicine

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