The Influence of Different Risk Factors on COVID-19 Outcomes in Adult Patients - An Observational-Descriptive Study
Objective. The aim of our study was to investigate the predictors of morbidity (age, gender, smoking habits, obesity and the presence of chronic diseases) and COVID-19 outcomes.
Subjects and Methods. The research was an observational descriptive study, conducted at The Family Medicine Education Center, The Primary Health Care Center, Banja Luka, in the period from 26th June to 31st December 2020. During the research period, seven family medicine teams followed their patients with COVID-19, and recorded possible predictors for morbidity and their influence on the disease outcome.
Results. The study included 934 patients, 46.90% of whom were male. The majority of subjects were non-smokers and overweight. Diabetes was found in 5.57% patients, hypertension in 29.44%, chronic respiratory diseases in 5.25%, cancer in 4.39% patients. In the observed sample, 29.23% subjects contracted pneumonia, 18.52% were hospitalized, while 19 (2.03%) patients with severe clinical features had a fatal outcome. Multivariable regression analysis showed a high risk of pneumonia in male patients [OR=2.45, 95% CI (1.73-3.46)], elderly [OR= 1.07, 95% CI (1.06-1.09)] and obese patients with Body Mass Index ≥30.0 kg/m2 [OR=2.55, 95% CI (1.73-3.77)]. Male gender [OR=2.19, 95% CI (1.11-4.31)], older age [OR=1.08, 95% CI (1.05-1.11)] and hypertension [OR=2.51, 95% CI (1.06-5.91)] were the most important predictors for the development of severe clinical features in COVID 19. The statistically significant predictors of mortality were male gender [OR=7.16, 95% CI (1.56-32.86)] and older age [OR=1.12, 95% CI (1.06-1.18].
Conclusion. Being familiar with the predictors of morbidity and poor outcome in COVID-19 is helpful for carrying out preventive measures, early diagnosis and treatment of risk groups of patients.
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