Morphological and morphometric analysis of the shape, position, number and size of mental foramen on human mandibles

Alma Voljevica, Elvira Talović, Aida Hasanović


Objective. To provide anatomical information on the position, morphological variations and incidence of mental foramen (MF) and accessory mental foramen (AMF) as they are important for dental surgeons, anesthetists in nerve block and surgical procedures, to avoid injury to the neurovascular bundle in the mental foramen area. Methods. Our study was conducted on 150 adult dry human mandibles from the osteological collection of the Department of Anatomy of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo. The location and shape of the MF and the presence of the AMF were studied by visual examination. The size and position of the MF were measured using a digital vernier caliper. SPSS, version 17 software was used for the statistical analysis. Results. Bilateral mental foramina were presented in all 150 mandibles. In the majority of mandibles, the MF was located between the first and second premolar (20.3%) or on the level of the root of the second premolar (60.3%), midway between the inferior margin and the alveolar margin of the mandible. Most of the mental foramina were oval in shape (83.3%). An AMF was present in four mandibles (2.7%) on the right side. Conclusion. Tis study may be a very useful new supplement to data on variations in the incidence, position, shape and size of mental and accessory mental foramina, which may help surgeons, anaesthetists, neurosurgeons and dentists in carrying out surgical procedures successfully.


Mental foramen; Accessory mental foramen; Mandible; Premolar tooth

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